Saturday, February 22, 2020
Go Down, Moses and Star Wars on Imperialism and Colonialism - Research Paper Example There are striking similarities between colonialism and imperialism though the differences must be examined as well. Colonialism is typically defined as the expansion of power by conquering new lands and gaining control over them. In short, colonialism is a system of direct political, economic, and cultural control by a powerful country over a weaker one. For example, FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s writings reflect the tensions of the south being dominated by the north. Ã¢â¬Å"In 1875 Mississippi Democrats "resolved to use as much force as was necessary" to regain control of their state government through elections, and their campaign of intimidation, which included the overt killing of blacks, succeeded.Ã¢â¬ Both groups of stories review multiple generations of imperial rule but also show that regardless of the strength one group has over another, that rule is limited as ultimately human nature is to rebel against absolute domination. Colonialism may go through a series of phases from success to failure. In these stories, the ultimate goal is colonization as one group looks to expand and control another. Though FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s stories focus more on localized groups and the Star Wars saga presents a quest for a more universal domination, both use methods of imperialism to achieve this end. Though the collection in Go Down, Moses focuses only within one country, it demonstrates the relationship between whites and blacks and then north and south across several generations. This element of time present in both Faulkner and the Star Wars saga not only shows that imperialism cannot last forever, the repetitions throughout each new episode or story leaves the impression that regardless of time or characters, some themes are always the same in history.
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Does High School Affect Social Mobility - Essay Example Student mobility i.e. students moving from one school to another for reasons other than being promoted to the next school level-is common in the United States. It is a topic that repeatedly surfaces in discussions about the problems of urban schooling. Remarkably, it tends to fade from the program as discussion turns toward reform initiatives and school restructuring. Student mobility and the resulting school instability are usually relegated to a background condition a part of an external context to which schools must adjust. However, mobility's effects can be deep and wide-ranging. They penetrate the crucial activity of schools the interaction of teachers and students around learning. In addition, not only does mobility have an effect on those students who are changing schools, it also more in general disturbs the functioning of classrooms and the basic operations of schools. This is not to say that just reducing student mobility will unavoidably translate into school improvement. Stable schools can also provide bad quality instruction to their students. Stability, in contrast, provides a base condition on which a school can build and transform successful programs. Without a certain level of stability, it is in doubt how school -based educational programs, no matter how modern, could effectively develop and show long-term impact. Mobility is an occurrence that is strongly deep-seated in the urban context and in urban schools. Accordingly, no one-policy approach alone is likely to reduce its prevalence and to improve its effects. The analyses suggest that an array of policy issues merit consideration. Discussions should focus on two levels: policies that can assist in decreasing the level of mobility between schools, and initiatives that can assess the negative impact of student mobility on learning and support school improvement efforts more generally. Over their whole elementary and secondary careers, most students make at least one non-promotional school change (Rumberger et al., 1999). Many educators think that student mobility is a definite result of students changing residences. In actual fact, 2000 U.S. census data show that 15% to 18% of school-age children moved in the previous year. There have also been indications that welfare reform may affect moving, with parents moving to accept jobs. On the other hand, research has also found that between 30% and 40% of school changes are not related with residential changes (Kerbow, 147-169; Rumberger et al., 1999). School factors such as overcrowding, class size reduction, suspension and expulsion policies, and the general academic and social climate also contribute to student mobility. The increase of parental options included in the No Child Left Behind legislation may also contribute over time to increased mobility. Impact on Students Academic Growth: A Literature Review The existing studies of the effect of student mobility on achievement tend to point out that a general decline in achievement is associated with mobility (Benson, Haycraft, Stayaert, & Weigel, 444-47; Benson & Weigel, 15-19; Blane et al, 127-42; Felner et al., 449-59; Johnson & Lindblad, 547-52; Schuler, 17-24; Wood et al., 1334-1338). The
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Existentialism is Humanism Essay The assumption by Sartre that existence precedes essence takes back the traditional thinking of philosophers about essence and existence. In general they thought that essence precedes existence in certain ways. Sartre posits that they are right to some extent. When he observes that Ã¢â¬Å"Existence precedes essenceÃ¢â¬ he does not mean that this is always the case, but rather that sometimes it is so. This can be explained using his example in the essay about the Ã¢â¬Å"paper knifeÃ¢â¬ . In this case of the paper knife, Sartre argues that essence precedes existence, Ã¢â¬Å"that is to say the sum of the procedures and the qualities which made its production and its definition possible Ã¢â¬â precedes its existenceÃ¢â¬ (Sartre 1946). Essence is the expression created when something is given a definition. Essence sets the limits of an object and provides the basic properties of a thing; that is what it has or what it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have in order to serve its purpose of existence. In this case, essence precedes existence in the logic that before a designer manufactured the knife there was some plan for it that existed in his or her mind. This plan is the essence (Sartre 1943). Therefore when Sartre says that essence precedes existence in this case he is simply recognizing the fact that the knife was premeditated first and later on it was produced. This means the plan to produce the knife was there first and later it was produced following that plan. From this example it is easy to track down the general principle that Sartre is trying to bring out. First for all manufactured objects or articles, essence precedes existence. Since God lives and as he is thought to be the creator of the whole world then it follows that the whole world and everything in it can be assumed to be an artifact. God was the master planner and He created everything according to His plan. God, when He creates man he uses the same procedure just as the manufacture of the paper knife since when he creates he knows what he is creating. The idea of God was suppressed in the 18th century but the idea of essence preceding existence was universally accepted in the philosophies of Diderot, Voltaire and Kant. Sartre observes that Ã¢â¬Å"In Kant, this universality goes so far that the wild man of the woods, man in the state of nature and the bourgeois are all contained in the same definition and have the same fundamental qualities. Here again, the essence of man precedes that historic existence which we confront in experienceÃ¢â¬ (Sartre 1946). From this analysis we get to the next step. If God lives this means essence comes first for everything that is in world. There is a traditional explanation of this divine plan generally referred to as Providence in theological circles. It refers to the plan that God worked in advance before he created the universe and humanity. But this plan is not just for the whole because He has also premeditated all the details since he is an all knowing God. This means we do not have the human nature in general to set boundaries on what we can do or what we cannot do. In addition there is also a divine plan for individuals. For example Socrates has his own essence that confines him within the universal plan of human nature (Zunjic 2010). Being an atheist, Sartre observes that if God does not exists then there is one being whose existence comes before its essence and that is man or human reality as Heidegger puts it. When he says existence precedes essence Sartre provide the meaning by saying that Ã¢â¬Å" this means that man first exists, he encounters himself, goes into the world and later on discovers or defines himself. When the man is not definable as the existentialist sees him it is because to start with, man is nothingÃ¢â¬ (Sartre 1946). Man will not be anything until some times later and then he will be what he makes himself to be at the end. In other words man is responsible for his actions if existence preceded essence. Ã¢â¬Å"Therefore existentialism puts place every responsibility for his existence on his shoulders. This means man is not only responsible for himself but also for all menÃ¢â¬ (Sartre 1946). Sartre observation that people must create themselves and give themselves meaning meant that people have to protect themselves instead of calling on God to intervene on their behalf. He saw people as the ones responsible for their politics and individual lives. He refused the notion that the devil was responsible for individual acts or the explanation that one was following God. He also did no accept the excuse of being only human or unloved by ones parents. It was not an excuse to follow the crowd for Sartre. He believed that people create their own moral values through the choices that they make in life. The people are the ones responsible for drawing their plans as to what they will or will not do (Sartre 1943). The philosophers of the traditional forms of humanism thought they could keep this idea of a kind of prior nature without having God in mind. They had in mind an atheist view of nature as well as the notion of an ordered universe where things happened in a predetermined and ordered manner. According to Sartre they were all wrong. This is because if essence precedes existence in general, that is ,if the laws that sets the limits of what things are and what they are able to have been established and determined before the things came into existence, then where would they exist? (Zunjic 2010). These philosophers have connected the concept of existence and essence in such a manner that existence signifies the instantiation of essence. If essence describes what a thing is and existence Ã¢â¬Å"that it isÃ¢â¬ then it follows that what is reasonable about any particular object and what can be thought about it will fit in its essence. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s from this kind of thinking that traditional philosophy drew its description for ones way of life. To them having essence meant that people could be placed within the universe that provided the ability for the human development. But Descartes disagreed with this type of thinking preferring a radical first person reflection of his own version of existence the Ã¢â¬Å"I amÃ¢â¬ . Nevertheless he later on modified the old model by incorporating his existence as that of a substance determined by an essential property Ã¢â¬Å"thinkingÃ¢â¬ . Thus the idea of reality according to Sartre is similar to that of DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Å"I am, I exists, therefore I am; I am because I think, why do I think? I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to think any more; I am because I think that I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be. Ã¢â¬ (Existentialism Is Humanism. 2010). In summary when Sartre says that existence precede essence he means that man first exists, he encounters himself, goes into the world and later on discovers or defines himself. When the man is not definable as the existentialist sees him it is because to start with, man is nothing. He will not be anything until some times later and then he will be what he makes himself to be at the end. Traditional views give priority to essence and high values for its features whereas Sartre gives priority to existence with its positive reevaluation of its contingency and temporality. With this reversed view Sartre believed we can give full tribute to man and his self creative capabilities. References Existentialism Is Humanism. (2010). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved May 17, 2010, from Encyclopedia Britannica Online: http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/198165/Existentialism-Is-a-Humanism Sartre J. P. (1946), The Humanism of Existentialism. London: World Publishing Company Sartre (1943) Being and Nothingness. London: World Publishing Company Zunjic Bob (2010). The Humanism of Existentialism. Retrieved May 17, 201017th, ,from http://www. uri. edu/personal/szunjic/philos/human. htm
Monday, January 20, 2020
Why should managers become better acquainted with programming issues, web source and technology? Abstract Summary Now more than ever, the marketplace has created a strong connection between information technology and managers due to the markets in depth involvement with technology. This is the reason why thereÃ¢â¬â¢s been a recent requirement for managers to have somewhat of understanding of information technology, basic programming knowledge, and familiarity with source codes. The abstract clearly explicates how due to alterations in the dynamic market, it is essential for a multi talented manager to deal with updates and modifications. In return, they increment their skills and add programming and web technology to their skills. Programming argument The overall concept of this argument is that programming skills will eventually improve project management team analysisÃ¢â¬â¢s and enhance the management decision-making which results in better management. According to statistics, approximately one out of five people in the U.S. population have to deal with programming issues and program writing. In the long run, everyone will eventually need to learn some type of programming regardless the field their affiliated with. Programming Simplicity and Programming and language problems This Section explains how the basis of programming hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t really changed for nearly fifty years; perhaps a few words here and there have been changed, but in essence programming has been kept pretty simple. For example, a program is a set of instructions telling the computer what to do. Programming consists of three foundations, Sequence, decision-making, and repetition. These steps are known as the control flow. A waterfall can be used as an example to have a better understanding of what programming really is. A waterfall that starts at the top and flows directly to the bottom is the sequential control flow, where there is only one path. If the water reaches a point where it will change its direction, this point is referred to as decision. When the flow returns to the top, Software engineering Focuses on how an overabundance in programming resulted in web chaos and anarchy. This eventually led to software engineering paradigms. This was in essence a software crisis. Y2k Compliance Managers who had insufficient knowledge of programming and other technological aspects had caused a drawback in the authority of managers. Not only did programmers instruct managers on what to do, but programmers with no managerial training were running the show. WEB CHAOS, SPAM, SPIM SPIT Refocuses on how you can regulate and prevent web disasters from occurring.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Of the various parallels between Hamlet and Laertes is one of the most telling. From the beginning of the play we see the two in comparable situations, each young men of the court, each seeking university, each spied on by Polonius, each (it would appear) loving Ophelia, in different ways. Therefore, when Laertes finds himself in HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s position of having a father murdered, the audience watches with interest to see how he will react, and how this will compare with HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour in the same situation. In fact, although Hamlet points out that: Ã¢â¬Ëby the image of my cause I can see The portraiture of hisÃ¢â¬â¢ Laertes reaction to murder of his father is very different from hamletÃ¢â¬â¢s, and indeed he is everything which Hamlet rebukes himself for failing to b. He forms the very epitome of a traditional avenger, and almost everything he does forms a contrast with what Hamlet does not do. Immediately as he returns to the court Ã¢â¬Ëin a riotous headÃ¢â¬â¢, having recruited Ã¢â¬Ëa rabbleÃ¢â¬â¢, to aid him in his revenge. Thus we see that he finds both opportunity and means to destroy his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s supposed murderer as soon as he possibly can. It is sometimes argued that Hamlet has little opportunity, doing the first two acts of the play, at least, to confront Claudius and exact his revenge. However, it is clear that Ã¢â¬â particularly since he is Ã¢â¬Ëloved by the distracted multitudeÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â Hamlet might have actively created such an opportunity for himself, just as Laertes does. Furthermore Laertes is determined that he will Ã¢â¬Ëdare damnationÃ¢â¬â¢ in order to revenge his father. This is very important when soliloquy beginning, Ã¢â¬ËTo be or not to beÃ¢â¬â¢, in which he confesses that Ã¢â¬Ëthe dread of something after deathÃ¢â¬â¢ is, in part, what makes him Ã¢â¬Ëlose the name of actionÃ¢â¬â¢, for again we see hamletÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude to his task differs radically from that of a traditional avenger. This is also apparent when Laertes says that he would Ã¢â¬Ëcut (HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s) throat IÃ¢â¬â¢ thÃ¢â¬â¢ church ! Ã¢â¬Ë, since we are immediately reminded that Hamlet refused to kill Claudius, when given the perfect opportunity, because he was in prayer. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to kill Claudius at this time (because his prayers make him Ã¢â¬Ëfit and seasonedÃ¢â¬â¢ to go to heaven Ã¢â¬â which is hardly a fitting revenge for a man who has sent his brother to be judged with Ã¢â¬Ëhis crimes broad blownÃ¢â¬â¢) may Ã¢â¬â if we decide that they are more than just another rationalization (an entirely debatable point in itself) Ã¢â¬â prove that Hamlet reflects more carefully than Laertes on the business of revenge and that he is more caught up in the need for a perfect and fitting revenge. Nevertheless LaertesÃ¢â¬â¢ clear opinion that Ã¢â¬ËRevenge should have no boundsÃ¢â¬â¢, and his immediate and unhesitating action, in comparison with HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s continual prevarication, persuade us that he is the more effective avenger. Laertes falls into the same category as Fortinbras, who with his Ã¢â¬Ëunimproved mettle hot and fullÃ¢â¬â¢ seeks revenge on Denmark for winning and taking control of what had been his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s lands, and Pyrrhus, who brutally kills an old and defenceless man in the name of revenge. All these charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ unhesitating and decisive action, and what seems to be their lack of fear at the consequences, throw HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s indecisiveness very much into relief, for whilst he can only Ã¢â¬Ëunpack (his) heart with wordsÃ¢â¬â¢, they can Ã¢â¬ËsweepÃ¢â¬ ¦ to revengeÃ¢â¬â¢ as he longs to. However, it is Claudius, not Laertes, who actually states that Ã¢â¬ËRevenge should have no boundsÃ¢â¬â¢, which is not only ironic, since it is HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s hesitation alone which has saved him so far, but Ã¢â¬â I feel Ã¢â¬â also has sinister undertones, since one would hardly have put such words into the mouth of the clearest villain of the play without implying that this sentiment is also, somehow, villainous. Of course, as Claudius is here manipulating LaertesÃ¢â¬â¢ strong desire for revenge, it would be unwise to attach too much importance to this point, but it is nevertheless interesting to examine our attitude to LaertesÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude towards revenge as opposed to HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s. After all, the impetuous approach of the former allows him to believe: ; The people muddied, Thick and unwholesome in their thoughts and whispers. Ã¢â¬Ë Thus he promptly accuses the wrong man (Claudius, rather than Hamlet) of killing his father. Compare this with Hamlet Ã¢â¬â well aware that all is not necessarily what it seems in Denmark Ã¢â¬â who creates an elaborate plan to Ã¢â¬Ëcatch the conscience of the kingÃ¢â¬â¢ before he proceeds. It might also appear to the audience that LaertesÃ¢â¬â¢ defiance of damnation is more to do with a lack of reflection on Ã¢â¬Ëthe undiscovered countryÃ¢â¬â¢ than courage in facing it. After all, as hamlet points out: Ã¢â¬Ëthe native hue of resolution Is sicklied oÃ¢â¬â¢er with the pale cast of thoughtÃ¢â¬â¢ Laertes is all Ã¢â¬ËresolutionÃ¢â¬â¢, untroubled by the words and thoughts, which impede hamletÃ¢â¬â¢s action. (We never see Laertes in soliloquy, of course, because he is morally certain of what he must do, and does not explore the subject further. ) However, we possibly feel some sympathy with the view that: Ã¢â¬Ëblest are those Whose blood and judgement are so well co meddled That they are not a pipe for FortuneÃ¢â¬â¢s finger. Ã¢â¬Ë Ironically, these words, spoken by Hamlet in praise of Horatio, actually describe the former in some respects, and particularly when we see him in comparison with Laertes. After all, whilst his endless reflection might appear to serve, at times, only to exacerbate and rationalize his delay, at least he can only rarely be accused of being rash. Laertes believes that, Ã¢â¬ËThat drop of blood thatÃ¢â¬â¢s calm proclaims me bastard. Ã¢â¬Ë However, this rage, this refusal to reason calmly and to reflect on what has happened, allows the slippery Claudius to manipulate Laertes for his own ends, leading to the treachery which destroys Claudius and Laertes themselves, and Gertrude, as well Hamlet. Ultimately, there is a certain nobility t be found in the exchange of forgiveness between hamlet and Laertes (the final link the latterÃ¢â¬â¢s assurance that: Ã¢â¬ËMine and my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death come not upon thee, Nor thine on me! Ã¢â¬Ë Which is greater than LaertesÃ¢â¬â¢ revengeful triumph over Hamlet. This is not to say that ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s presentation of Laertes serves entirely as an indictment of the process of revenge. Both hamlet and Laertes speak of the Ã¢â¬ËhonourÃ¢â¬â¢ of revenge, and finally does kill Claudius, that he is Ã¢â¬Ëjustly served. Ã¢â¬Ë However, I can feel that considering LaertesÃ¢â¬â¢ contribution to the theme of revenge is only useful when seen alongside hamletÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to the same theme, and perhaps this portrayal of a traditional avenger who is only useful when seen alongside hamletÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to the same theme, and perhaps this portrayal of a traditional avenger who is rash, manipulative and finally self-destructive, allows us to see hamlet in a more favourable light when he is unable to assume the same role as traditional avenger.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Manufactured Landscape is one of the renowned documentaries that are largely based on the works of Edward Burtynsky such as the landscape images of factories, mines, dams recycling fields, and industrial debris. These images are often presented in a manner that depicts them as beautiful and highlights both the aesthetics and ethics involved without necessarily addressing such issues. The documentary particularly captures scenes obtained from Burtynsky's tours across China while focusing on the countries massive industrial development. Some of the common sites include the famous Three Gorges Dam, the Shanghai urban development projects among other industrial landscape features. China is one of the countries that have recently experienced enormous social economic transformations due to industrial development. Consequently, the imagery effectively explored the delicate link between nature and contemporary industrial development. The film was eventually nominated as the best documentary during the 2008 film independent awards. Edward Burtynsky s primary interest was to highlight some of the ways through which humanity has impacted on nature and landscape. This particularly explains why he concentrated on documenting the industrial effects on nature for nearly 20 years. We will write a custom essay sample on Edward Burtynsky: Canadian Photographer or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page In this regard, the theme of terra-transformation is effectively highlighted using various visual correlations of farming, waterways, and landscape.
Friday, December 27, 2019
Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1879 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2019/03/14 Category Health Essay Level High school Tags: Childhood Obesity Essay Obesity Essay Did you like this example? Abstract Childhood obesity is a complex issue within the United States which can lead to immediate health problems as well as future health complications. Childhood obesity is defined by the CDC as children having a BMI at or above the 95th percentile. The body mass index (BMI) is a measurement tool used to determine whether an individuals height and weight is within normal, overweight or obese and is calculated by dividing the individuals weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Childhood Obesity is a Complex Issue" essay for you Create order Because boys and girls vary in their body composition as they age, BMI for age is a more appropriate measure. BMI for age uses an age and sex specific percentile for BMI to determine the childs weight status (CDC). The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing in the United States. According to CDC, childhood obesity has tripled since 1970 with Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks having a higher obesity prevalence than non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic Asians having the lowest obesity prevalence. The prevalence of obesity in low- and middle-income groups are also higher as compared with the high-income groups. In addition, the CDC has found that there is evidence to illustrate the relationship of increasing level of education of the household head and the decrease in the prevalence of obesity. Certain risk factors, behaviors as well as the environment contributes to childhood obesity. These include consumption of high calorie, low nutrient diets such as sodas, pizzas and fast foods, sedentary lifestyle, and food deserts. Childhood obesity is becoming an epidemic that requires immediate interventions. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has contributed to numerous health related complications. Childhood obesity is related to immediate and future poor health outcomes. Childhood obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases resulting from high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. According to the CDC, in addition to cardiovascular complications, children who are obese are also at increased risk of developing type II diabetes, asthma and sleep apnea, joint problems and musculoskeletal problems from the increased weight on the joints and bones as well as anxiety, depression and low self-esteem resulting from the stigma of being obese and the experience of bullying. Children who are obese may also develop obesity in adulthood which can increase the severity of risk factors and disease progression. Conducting this study allows for the examination of the impact of implementation of food programs on reducing childhood obesity. An intervention that is implemented by the government to help address this epidemic is the creation and implementation of the national school lunch program which provides students attending public schools access to free and reduced school meals. Because of the presence of food deserts in communities and the increasing cost of healthy food options in supermarkets, the implementation of free and reduced school meals hopes to provide free and reduced healthy meal options to children who do not have access to cheap, nutritious meals in their communities to help combat the increasing prevalence of obesity in childhood. According to Lill (2016), since the implementation of the school meal programs, more than 30 million students are now receiving free and reduced school meals. Additionally, students spend the majority of their time in school. Most of their diets are consumed in school therefore, school meals play a key role in influencing the students eating habits and food choices. According to research conducted by Haynes-Maslow et. al (2015), fifth graders who received free and reduced meals consumed fruits and vegetables three more times per week compared to fifth graders who do not participate in the free and reduced school meal program (p. 3). Utilizing the acronym PICO, this evidence-based practice project provides an educational intervention that will translate and apply to the science of nursing to the greater health care field to help reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity. The acronym stands for population (P), interventions (I), comparison of group or intervention (C) and outcomes (O). The population consists of school age children receiving free and reduced school meals. The intervention includes patient education about nutrition and resources such as free and reduced school meals. Comparing children receiving free and reduced meals to children not receiving free and reduced school meals allows for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the program in reducing childhood obesity which would be the expected outcome. Pico allows this project to address the question, does consuming free and reduced school meals decrease childhood obesity? The project provides an educational intervention for parents of school aged children to address healthy food resources for their children to help decrease their childrens BMI, lowering their health risks associated with obesity. Educating parents about the available healthy resources which includes free and reduced school meals brings the parents and their children a step closer towards fighting the epidemic of childhood obesity. Educating the parents and children helps mitigate negative long-term health outcomes. Through education, parents and their children can become aware of healthier food options and healthy food choices. The study will provide an evidence-based strategy to illustrate improved health outcomes from healthy food choices. A theoretical foundation that guides this study is the family-centered practice which proposes that the involvement of the family plays a vital role in the healthy development of the child. Parents want their child to grow and develop healthy. Because the healthy development of the child is one of the major focus of the parents, their involvement allows for the successful achievement of a healthy lifestyle and diet for the child thereby reducing their childs risks for obesity and its negative health outcomes. There are several concepts that surround the theory of family-centered practice. Transparency is important in developing and establishing a trusting relationship with the family which contributes to the success of the study. Clear and explicit information about methods and procedures used in the study for example, provides a sense of researcher accountability and openness assisting in the active participation of the family in the research study. Collaboration plays an important role in addressing childhood obesity because the parents, the children, school administration and staff and the health care professionals have to work together to implement these programs to ensure its success. On studying the impact of free and reduced meals on childhood obesity, Johnson et. al (2016), conducted a study to evaluate the nutritional quality of foods that are chosen by students as they participate in the study. In assessing the nutritional quality of the food the students chose, the researchers calculated the monthly mean adequacy ratio which included calcium, vitamins A and C, iron, fiber and proteins and the energy density of the selected food. After the program, the study found that there was a significant improvement in the nutritional quality of foods chosen by the students, as measured by increased mean adequacy ratio from a mean of 58.7 prior to policy implementation to 75.6 after policy implementation and decreased energy density from a mean of 1.65 to 1.44 (Johnson et. al, 2016). Taber et. al (2013) also conducted a study to determine the effect of the national school lunch program on the weight status of the students. The study compared students receiving different school lunches and outcomes were obtained from the students BMI index percentile and obesity status. They found that in states that exceeded USDA standards, the difference in obesity prevalence between students who obtained free/reduced-price lunches and students who did not obtain school lunches was 12.3 percentage points smaller compared with states that did not exceed USDA standards (Taber et. al, 2013). Free and reduced school meals positively impact the food choices chosen by the students which equally impacts their weight and their BMI. Participants will compose of a purposive sample of forty-five to fifty elementary and middle school students from Montebello Elementary/Middle School. The sample will include students between the ages of seven through thirteen with a BMI at or above the 95th percentile who are attending a public school. Most reduced and free school meal programs are implemented in public elementary and middle schools. Targeting students with BMI at or above the 95th percentile will compare their progress as they participate in the study. Exclusion criteria will include homeschooled children, students with religious diet restrictions, students attending private schools and students with food allergies. Following a longitudinal study design, the parents and children will be observed for a whole year to determine food choices in school and outside of the school. The study will illustrate whether healthy school meals reflect food choices after school and during the summer in the absence of free and reduced meals. The study will begin with describing and defining childhood obesity which will include information about its prevalence, risks factors, contributing behaviors and health complications. A seven-question survey will be given prior to the study to assess the family and childs understanding of healthy food choices and resources as well as methods of reducing childhood obesity. The questions will address whether the child is involved in a free and reduced school meal program, family and childs satisfaction of the food choices offered in the school, compliance with healthy eating guidelines such as MyPlate, importance of a healthy diet in the childs immediate and future health and assessing the family and the childs perception of obesity. Data will be collected through personal family recorded videos to observe their day to day encounters as they become educated in the management of obesity as well as written food journals to record daily food intake. Free classes will also be offered to further educate the family and the child about healthy food options, reading nutritional labels and several other methods of addressing obesity. A survey similar to the survey given in the beginning of the program will be given at the end of the study to assess the family and childs progress and renewed understanding in managing obesity. The participants will be provided complete explanation of the study prior to the beginning of the study. They will be asked to sign an informed consent form to acknowledge their understanding and voluntary participation in the study. Confidentiality of the participants will be maintained. Each study involves certain risks. Participants will be informed of the minimal risks associated with the study. Data will be collected through the surveys, family video recordings and written food journals and will be analyzed based on the overall effect of the program on the child and the families food choices. One important question that will be answered and analyzed is the overall effect of free and reduced school meals on food choices made by the family and the child. Conclusion Another question that will be addressed will be whether the family and the child has learned about healthy food choices including reading nutrition labels, watching caloric intake and preparing healthy meals. Another question is whether the participants will be able to adhere to healthy eating and choosing healthier food options outside of school especially in the summer. Analyzing these questions and the responses from the study will allow for the review of the study to determine its limitations and its possible application for nursing practice as well as possible revisions for conducting future study to obtain better data and address the limitations within this study. Limitations that may be addressed in future studies can address the small sample size, various methods of data collection and data analysis.